BackHipparchia azorina (Strecker, 1898)

Hipparchia azorina (Strecker, 1898)

Azores Grayling (English)

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Arthropoda
  • Class: Insecta
  • Order: Lepidoptera
  • Family: Nymphalidae
LC Least Concern
IUCN Red List Status:

Countries of Occurrence:
Portugal - Azores


van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J.

Lewis, O. (Butterfly RLA) & Cuttelod, A. (IUCN Red List Unit)


Facilitators / Compilers/s:

Assessment Rationale:

Although this species occurs in a small extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO), it is not declining by more than 30% nor shows extreme fluctuations according to Russell et al. (2007). Therefore it is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range:

This species is restricted to the Azores. H. azorina occurs on Faial, Pico, Sao Jorge, Terceira, Flores and Corvo (although some authors consider the population on the two latter (western) islands to be H. occidentalis). Its elevational range is 400-2,000 m. This is a European endemic species.

Portugal - Azores
Extent of Occurrence (EOO):
Area of Occupancy (AOO):
Elevation Lower Limit:
400 (m)
Elevation Upper Limit:
2000 (m)
Biogeographic Realms:
Endemic Azores


A local species, restricted to (semi-) natural areas. Declines in distribution or population size of 6-30% have been reported (data provided by the national partners of Butterfly Conservation Europe).

Habitat and Ecology

The Azores Grayling is a butterfly of sheltered places on grassy slopes on the Azores. The butterflies are often observed on flowers where they come for nectar. The only foodplant is probably Festuca jubata. The Azores Grayling has one generation a year (Tolman and Lewington 2008). Habitats: agricultural land and artificial landscapes (33%), heath and scrub (33%), mesophile grasslands (33%).

Major Threat(s):

Although this is a European endemic with a restricted range, this species is not believed to face major threats at the European level

Conservation Actions

No specific conservation actions are needed at a European level. But since it has a restricted global range, its distribution and trend should be monitored closely, for example by a Butterfly Monitoring Scheme