BackPhilygria cedercreutzi Frey, 1945

Philygria cedercreutzi Frey, 1945

Shore fly

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Arthropoda
  • Class: Insecta
  • Order: Diptera
  • Family: Ephydridae
DD Data Deficient
IUCN Red List Status:

Countries of Occurrence:
Portugal - Azores


Danielczak, A.


Facilitators / Compilers/s:

Assessment Rationale:

Philygria cedercreutzi is an endemic species of the Azores (Portugal), recorded from Flores and Terceira islands. From the historical data, this species has been collected from disturbed areas and it potentially has a limited Extent of Occurrence (698 km2) and very small Area of Occupancy (16 km2). It is possible that this species has declined in the past as a result of human activity, although the present situation of this species needs to be further assessed, and further research is needed into its population, distribution, threats, ecology and life history. Conservation of native vegetation, wet and boggy areas and other water bodies and of the coastline could potentially aid this species' conservation. Based upon the lack of recent data regarding this species' population, distribution, threats and ecology, it is not possible to accurately estimate the extinction risk of the species and it could theoretically fall into any category. Therefore, this species is assessed as Data Deficient (DD).

Geographic Range:

Philygria cedercreutzi is an Azorean-endemic species that was described from the islands of Flores and Terceira (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010), known from shore and disturbed habitats. Based on the historical data (Frey 1945), the Extent of Occurrence (EOO) could be ca. 698 km² and the Area of Occupancy (AOO) could be ca. 16 km². However, there is no recent information regarding the distribution of this species, and the actual full distribution of the species is unknown.

Portugal - Azores
Extent of Occurrence (EOO):
Area of Occupancy (AOO):
Elevation Lower Limit:
0 (m)
Elevation Upper Limit:
150 (m)
Biogeographic Realms:
Endemic Azores


No current population size estimates exist for this species, and the overall population size and trend are essentially unknown.

Habitat and Ecology

The ecology and traits of this species are unknown. Ephydridae usually live in aquatic and semiaquatic habitats; maritime marshes, tidal salt pools, salt and alkaline lakes of arid regions (McAlpine et al. 1987). Larvae of most Ephydridae are filter-feeders, feeding on microscopic algae, bacteria and yeasts from the surrounding semiliquid medium. Others prefer dead and decaying animal tissue or excrement, while others are leaf miners. Larvae of some species are predators (McAlpine et al. 1987). Specimens of Philygria cedercreutzi have been collected near the seashore and in Monte Brasil (Terceira island), a site with a pronounced seashore component and also disturbed by human activity.

Major Threat(s):

A lack of information regarding the present status of this species precludes an assessment of potential threats. Nevertheless, the ecology of other members of the Ephydridae family suggests that this species might be affected by future habitat declines as a consequence of climate change (Ferreira et al. 2016) and increased droughts. Contamination of surface waters by agricultural and livestock runoff can also potentially affect this species. Past and present human disturbance and land use changes, together with habitat degradation caused by invasive species might have also affected Philygria cedercreutzi, as it has been collected at disturbed sites.

Conservation Actions

The species is not protected by regional law. The present situation of this species needs to be further assessed, and further research is needed into its population, distribution, threats, ecology and life history. From what is known of its habitat preferences, conservation of native forests, of natural streams and water bodies, of native wet and boggy areas and other wet habitats could potentially aid this species' conservation.