BackScoparia coecimaculalis Warren, 1905

Scoparia coecimaculalis Warren, 1905

Moth (English); Traça (Portuguese)

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Arthropoda
  • Class: Insecta
  • Order: Lepidoptera
  • Family: Crambidae
LC Least Concern
IUCN Red List Status:

Countries of Occurrence:
Portugal - Azores


Danielczak, A.

Nunes, R. & Lamelas-Lopez, L.

Facilitators / Compilers/s:

Assessment Rationale:

Scoparia coecimaculalis is an endemic species present in the islands of Corvo, Flores, Faial, Pico, Graciosa, S. Jorge, Terceira, S. Miguel and Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Nuss et al. 1997; Borges et al. 2010). It has a relatively large area of occupancy (AOO = 288 km²) and extent of occurrence (EOO = ca 38,000 km²). It is usually associated with native forest, occurring in 16 Natural Forest Reserves of Azores. It is closely associated with Azorean endemic trees and have possibly two generations per year. Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will decline as a consequence of climate change. The species is assessed as Least Concern (LC) due to the widespread distribution and high abundance in the canopies of endemic trees, having also a high range of altitude occupancy (100-2200 m).

Geographic Range:

Scoparia coecimaculalis is an endemic species present in the islands of Corvo, Flores, Faial, Pico, Graciosa, S. Jorge, Terceira, S. Miguel and Santa Maria (Azores, Portugal) (Nuss et al. 1997, Borges et al. 2010), known from native forest. Within these islands it is known from sixteen Natural Forest Reserves: Caldeiras Funda e Rasa and Morro Alto e Pico da Sé (Flores); Caldeira do Faial and Cabeço do Fogo (Faial); Mistério da Prainha, Caveiro and Caiado (Pico); Pico Pinheiro and Topo (S. Jorge); Biscoito da Ferraria, Pico Galhardo, Caldeira Sta. Bárbara e Mistérios Negros and Terra Brava (Terceira); Graminhais and Pico da Vara (S. Miguel) and Pico Alto (Sta. Maria). The extent of occurrence (EOO) is ca 38,000 km² and the maximum estimated area of occupancy (AOO) is 288 km².

Portugal - Azores
Extent of Occurrence (EOO):
38000 (km2)
Area of Occupancy (AOO):
288 (km2)
Elevation Lower Limit:
100 (m)
Elevation Upper Limit:
2200 (m)
Biogeographic Realms:
Endemic Azores


Scoparia coecimaculalis is a widespread and particularly abundant species in native forests. The species has probably a stable population.

Habitat and Ecology

Scoparia coecimaculalis occurs in native forests in the Azorean archipelago. Larvae are herbivores and adults pollinators; moth flies from January to October, but there are no records from June (Nuss et al. 1997), with one or two broods per year. Altitudinal range: 100-2200 m.

Major Threat(s):

In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality, mostly the creation of pastures (Triantis et al. 2010). Currently invasive plants Pittosporum undulatum and Hedychium gardnerianum are changing some of the areas and decreasing the quality of the habitat. These changes are decreasing the relative cover of endemic plants and changing the soil cover (decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns). Based on Ferreira et al. (2016) the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and  habitat shifting & alteration).

Conservation Actions

The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is in regionally protected areas (Natural Parks of Corvo, Faial, Flores, Graciosa, Pico, S. Jorge, Terceira, São Miguel and Sta. Maria). Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. It is necessary a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to the conservation of this species. A habitat management plan is needed and anticipated to be developed during the coming years. Monitoring every ten years using the BALA protocol will inform about habitat quality (see e.g. Gaspar et al. 2010).