BackKowarzia storai Frey, 1945

Kowarzia storai Frey, 1945

Empid fly, Dance fly

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Arthropoda
  • Class: Insecta
  • Order: Diptera
  • Family: Empididae
DD Data Deficient
IUCN Red List Status:

Countries of Occurrence:
Portugal - Azores


Danielczak, A.


Facilitators / Compilers/s:

Assessment Rationale:

Kowarzia storai is an endemic species of the Azores (Portugal), being present (at least historically) on Flores island. From the historical data, this species would have a very small Extent of Occurrence (24 km 2) and Area of Occupancy (24 km2), and it is possible that this species has declined in the past as a result of human activity. The present situation of this species needs to be further assessed and further research is needed into its population, distribution, threats, ecology and life history. Conservation of native wet and boggy areas and natural streams and other water bodies could potentially aid this species conservation. Based upon the lack of recent in data regarding this species population, distribution, threats and ecology, this species is assessed as Data Deficient (DD). 

Geographic Range:

Kowarzia storai is an Azorean-endemic species that was described from the island of Flores (Borges et al. 2010). Based on the old historical data (Frey 1945), the Extent of Occurrence (EOO) would be ca 24 km² and the Area of Occupancy (AOO) would be ca 24 km². However, there is no recent information regarding the distribution of this species.

Portugal - Azores
Extent of Occurrence (EOO):
24 (km2)
Area of Occupancy (AOO):
24 (km2)
Elevation Lower Limit:
0 (m)
Elevation Upper Limit:
350 (m)
Biogeographic Realms:
Endemic Azores


No current population size estimates exist for this species.

Current Population Trend: Unknown 

Habitat and Ecology

The ecology and traits of this species are unknown. Empididae are mainly predatory flies. Adult empidids are found in a variety of forest habitats, on the leaves of plants, on tree trunks, aquatic vegetation and also in stream beds and seepage habitats (McAlpine et al. 1981). Adults capture arthropod prey, including other Diptera, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera, among others. Some adult Empididae species also feed on nectar and pollen (McAlpine et al. 1981). Larvae are generally found in moist soil, rotten wood, dung, or in aquatic habitats. Larvae often feed on decaying organic matter in the soil, but most are likely predatory (McAlpine et al. 1981). As predators, Empididae species are important biocontrol agents of various pest insect species (McAlpine et al. 1981). Species from the subfamily Clinoceridae are typically found near water, and Kowarzia storai specimens were found in a stream and in a wet rockwall.

Systems: Terrestrial, Freshwater (=Inland waters) 

Major Threat(s):

A lack of information regarding the present status of this species precludes an assessment of potential threats. Nevertheless, the ecology of other members of the Empididae family suggests that this species might be affected by future habitat declines as a consequence of climate change (Ferreira et al. 2016) and increased droughts. Contamination of surface waters by agricultural and livestock runoff can also potentially affect this species. Past human disturbance and land use changes might have also affected this species. 

Conservation Actions

The species is not protected by regional law. The present situation of this species needs to be further assessed, and further research is needed into its population, distribution, threats, ecology and life history. From what is known of its habitat preferences, conservation of native forests and of natural streams and water bodies could potentially aid this species' conservation.