BackRymosia azorensis Chandler & Ribeiro, 1995

Rymosia azorensis Chandler & Ribeiro, 1995

Fungus gnat

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Arthropoda
  • Class: Insecta
  • Order: Diptera
  • Family: Mycetophilidae
DD Data Deficient
IUCN Red List Status:

Countries of Occurrence:
Portugal - Azores


Russel, N.


Facilitators / Compilers/s:

Assessment Rationale:

Rymoza azorensis is an endemic species of the Azores (Portugal), that was described from S. Miguel island. This species was recorded in a single area in the vicinity of hot springs, in a site that is currently highly degraded. From the historical data, this species had a very small Extent of Occurrence (8 km2) and Area of Occupancy (8 km2), and it is possible that this species has declined in the past, as a result of human activity. The present situation of this species needs to be further assessed, and further research is needed into its population, distribution, threats, ecology and life history. Conservation/restoration of native habitats and humid areas could also potentially aid this species' conservation. However, based upon the lack of recent in data regarding this species population, distribution, threats and ecology, this species is assessed as Data Deficient (DD). 

Geographic Range:

Rymoza azorensis is an Azorean-endemic fly species that was described from the island of S. Miguel (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2010). It is known from a single site, Furnas, a disturbed location with hot springs. Based on the old historical data (Frey 1945), the Extent of Occurrence (EOO) would be ca. 8 km² and the Area of Occupancy (AOO) is also ca. 8 km². However, there is no recent information regarding the distribution of this species.

Portugal - Azores
Extent of Occurrence (EOO):
8 (km2)
Area of Occupancy (AOO):
8 (km2)
Elevation Lower Limit:
200 (m)
Elevation Upper Limit:
400 (m)
Biogeographic Realms:
Endemic Azores


No current population size estimates exist for this species.

Current Population Trend: Unknown 

Habitat and Ecology

The ecology and traits of this species are unknown. Mycetophilidae occur mainly in humid areas like moist forests (McAlpine et al. 1981), but are also quite common in swamps, or live in the moister parts of heath and open grassland, and some species have been recorded on mosses and liverworts. The larvae of many species live in fleshy or woody fungi or in dead wood and usually feed on fungi, especially the fruiting bodies, but also spores and hyphae. Nevertheless, the larvae of some species, while still being associated with fungi, are at least partly predatory (McAlpine et al. 1981). A few species are monophagous or polyphagous, but the majority of species are restricted to particular genera or families of fungi. Pupation usually takes place in the ground but some species pupate in the host fungus (McAlpine et al. 1981). Where the larvae are known, species of the genus Rymosiaa develop in soft terrestrial fungi, like agarics (Chandler and Ribeiro 1995).

Systems: Terrestrial 

Major Threat(s):

A lack of information regarding the present status of this species precludes an assessment of potential threats. Nevertheless, the ecology of other members of the Mycetophilidae family suggests that this species might be affected by future habitat declines as a consequence of climate change (Ferreira et al., 2016) and increased droughts. Given that this species was collected in the vicinity of hot springs, future violent geothermal events might as well affect it. Additionally, Rymosia azorensis was collected from a highly disturbed site, so past and present human disturbance and land use changes, coupled with habitat degradation by invasive species might have also affected this species. 

Conservation Actions

The species is not protected by regional law. The present situation of this species needs to be further assessed, and further research is needed into its population, distribution, threats, ecology and life history. From what is known, conservation of natural habitats and other wet areas, together with problematic species control, could potentially aid this species' conservation. This species is known to have been present in one area that is now highly disturbed, but included in the Natural Park of S. Miguel.